Statistical Reporting

The CSAA will use a variety of statistical methods to interpret the data from surveys. The use of scales and tests such as those defined below will be guided by the nature and intent of a survey, and will ensure consistent interpretation across different surveys.

A Likert-type Scale is an ordered, one-dimensional scale from which respondents choose one option that best aligns with their view. The number of response options in a Likert-type scale may vary, but they are typically designed to be bilaterally symmetric about a central 'neutral' point; for instance, a respondent may be asked if they Strongly Disagree, Disagree, are Neutral regarding, Agree, or Strongly Agree with a particular statement.

The CSAA will use a five point Likert-type scale to allow the individual to express how much they agree or disagree with a particular statement.

A statistical examination of two population means. A two-sample T-Test examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size.

The Wilcoxon test, which refers to either the Rank Sum test or the Signed Rank test, is a nonparametric test that compares two paired groups. The test essentially calculates the difference between each set of pairs and analyzes these differences.

A test on a 2x2 classification table when the two classification factors are dependent, or when you want to test the difference between paired proportions, e.g. in studies in which participants serve as their own control, or in studies with "before and after" design.